Feature articles on many soccer topics. One of the best informational websites on soccer on the internet. Uses streaming media. Coach actually talks to you in a video clip using "wipe board" to diagram activities.
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Mass Youth Soccer Coaching Library - An online library of coaching articles related to player and club development, training sessions, sports psychology, fitness and other soccer related information. Lots of useful commentary about soccer in Massachusetts and Region 1. Positive Coaching Alliance - The mission of the Positive Coaching Alliance is to educate, and encourage positive attitudes and behavior in all athletic endeavors by coaches, parents, administrators, media and players.
Sound coaching advice to develop team culture, conduct dynamic practices and honor the game. T he FA. Good information, training tips, video clips of training games and activities. Emphasis on European soccer. Very extensive lots of resources and coaching material from the governing body of United States Soccer. Includes articles, games, coaches blog and many more helpful tools for coaches. Penetration Penetration Lesson 2. Penetrating Passes. Speed of Play U14s - U16s. Foot coordination and speed. Spatial Awareness. CCYS has put together a comprehensive table of game characteristics by ages.
It contains answers to basic questions about what field sizes, goal types and balls that are used at each age level. Over the years, our In-Town program has developed specific guides to assist coaches in training the younger players in our program. Feel free to review what we have put together and let us know your thoughts on what works and what does not.
Based on this reading and the training conditions, the module recommends possible coach behaviours. You kind of move your stuff to certain areas… and you modify your session accordingly.
It is quite dangerous to train at that time, cause 7 I think is kind of in the borderline danger zone? But making it not as cardio fitness focused would be a good idea and to keep a very watchful eye on those players and have regular check-ins. Some of the more specific terminology or guidance from the module was not described. For example, the use of an individualized Asthma Action Plan, or following the rule using a rescue inhaler once before and a second time during activity, but ceasing participation if needed three times , was not identified.
Possible structural changes were also identified. For example, coaches described changing the training venue location and time, or moving training indoors for improved air quality. Club policy and organizational control were identified as barriers to these behaviours, specifically related to facility availability and training time and location:.
Participant: In an ideal world, you get to choose your facilities, you get to choose your time slots, you get to create a really positive inclusive environment. Researcher: Now when you say in an ideal world, what are some of the barriers you see to doing those things? Participant: What's the right word, logistics from a club. Trying to slot everybody in, and use for [the fields is] growing and that's a fantastic thing, but we had three or four age groups training at the same time with limited fields, especially in those odd seasons like Fall and Spring when you are not allowed on certain grass fields.
It can get dicey with what's available. Participant: Other sports where you need permits for stuff, for sure. Finally, social dynamics related to environment and health behaviours e.
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One coach explained perceived parent judgment:. This attitude highlights the tension between managing athlete health and parental and player expectations and maximizing performance and team success. Ensuring well-managed social and physical environments is critical to both team success and reducing health risks in sport.
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Most coaches did not report problems related to module usability. While one participant described their preference for classroom learning, this theme was only identified once:. I don't love learning online, I like in a classroom setting or having someone instruct you… it makes you interact with the material versus just skimming through and reading and answering multiple choice questions. It just gives you another way to kind of really absorb the information and let it hit home, so I would prefer if it was added on into a classroom setting.
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When they were asked if they participated in the optional components or accessed additional resources, the uptake was fairly low; some coaches saved the resources for later reference, while others did not read the content. One coach recommended resource availability following module completion:. I think it would be important… to be able to provide resources that coaches can refer back to… or they could disseminate, whether that being to athletes, parents or coaches just to broadcast at least the basic messages as widely as possible. Coaches were asked about barriers to module participation.
Coaches discussed the value of organization subsidization of coach education costs and identified that asthma coach education would not be prioritized if paying out-of-pocket. Similarly, coaches described a lack of interest in asthma education compared with other possible courses, such as tactical or technical skill development:.
I don't know that as a head coach that would be something I would have sought out and purchased on my own, but I think more since it's covered for research or if it was covered by the club to go do, I don't think as just a head coach I would necessarily look into it and choose to spend my own money on that… If I was going to spend my own money or if I was going to try to prove a need to justify a regular course, I would be more comfortable and probably more prone to look into more strategy or drills-type of courses, more than even concussion or asthma or anything like that.
Participants generally recommended the module, particularly if subsidized. In order to improve the module or increase engagement, coaches identified combining asthma content with sport-specific coach education and emphasizing the benefits to specific sports and team performance.
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Coaches believed this would increase interest in Air Aware content and provide cobenefits related to coaching their sport. A summary of results is presented in Table 2. This exploratory work has not only increased our understanding of how environment and health risks specifically allergic disease and asthma are understood amongst coaches in Ontario but offers an applied example of how organized youth team sport coaches perceive and apply an environment and health online coaching module.
This research qualitatively assessed the impact of the Air Aware Coach Module. The module aims to provide an overview of issues related to the environment, respiratory health, and physical activity, supply protocols and resources for coaches to prevent or reduce asthma attacks, and increase coach understanding of risk factors as part of their due diligence [ 24 ]. This research investigated how coaches understand, recall, and apply module content in their team and athlete management and their recommendations for future module development. Understanding how coaches use the module and manage child and youth asthmatic athletes is critical to maximize athlete performance and ensure healthy and safe sport environments for participants.
While other health-focused coach education exists e. This module is situated amongst other asthma education tools targeted toward a range of audiences. For example, Bruzzese et al. Education programs for asthmatic children, parents, and stakeholders in the school environment also exist [ 27 — 30 ]. The successful application of this module therefore fills a significant gap as it engages a population that may not have formal coach training [ 31 ], or asthma management or child and youth health education.
How other organized team sport stakeholders e. When coaches were asked about module relevance, broad themes related to asthma management in sport e. Specific details e. Coaches often drew on their own asthma symptoms and behaviours or experience coaching asthmatic athletes e. Given all participants were involved with competitive teams, they may have longer-term relationships with athletes and exhibit a deeper understanding of athlete health concerns compared with a recreational coach sample who typically coach players for a single season.
Understanding how coaches from recreational environments value and apply the module may provide a deeper understanding of how coaches engage with and understand athlete health, encourage buy-in from different coach populations, and ensure both competitive and recreational athletes experience healthy physical activity and sport participation.
The imbalance of competitive and recreational coaches may also have influenced focus group dynamics, as competitive coaches may be more likely to emphasize team performance and results compared with recreational coaches. This emphasis could also influence how coaches form relationships with and manage asthmatic athletes. Future research focusing specifically on recreational coach perceptions and experiences will allow for increased understanding of how asthmatic athlete management is prioritized in different sporting contexts in Ontario.
Further, we know undesirable coaching behaviours, injury, lack of fun, and excessive pressure are possible reasons for dropout and decreased sport satisfaction for youth athletes [ 31 , 33 , 34 ]. While some competitive coaches may be familiar with their athletes' health and social behaviours, some may engage in risky management behaviours e.
This was emphasized when coaches reported increased interest in education focusing on improved team performance compared with health in sport. This is unsurprising, as while social developmental outcomes beyond on-field success are important to coaches [ 35 ], athlete development and enhanced performance are the primary objectives in competitive sport environments [ 36 ]. When asked about future coach education, participants prioritized other health outcomes e.
While the module includes sport-specific components, it is purposefully designed to include coaches of all sports e. Certain content was not perceived as relevant, and coaches described possible increased engagement if content was specific to their interests or incorporated in preexisting sport-specific education. Given the value competitive coaches put on team success and player improvement in addition to social development [ 37 ], emphasizing the links between well-managed asthma and team success and improved individual performance should be a major component of future coach education.
Other research [ 19 , 22 , 38 ] has described the possible barriers e. While children with asthma are generally less active than nonasthmatic youth [ 19 ], evidence indicates that physical activity can act as a protective factor against asthma development [ 16 ], and medical professionals recommend well-managed participation in physical activity for both respiratory and other health benefits [ 15 , 39 , 40 ].
This gap between evidence and behaviours perceived barriers to involvement versus long-term physical activity highlights the need for coach education emphasizing well-managed asthma and the provision of safe physical and social environments. This research focused heavily on the role of the coach in understanding and managing respiratory health risks in youth team sport.
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While coaches are fairly autonomous, focus group participants described the role of structural factors in their ability to manage asthmatic athletes e. Further, coaches identified the value of organization subsidization of the module's cost in order to increase coach participation. While this may be possible in certain contexts, clubs may not have available resources for coaches to complete supplemental education, particularly given the challenge of declining sports participation [ 41 ] and the competition for often scarce resources between increasing participation costs, coach education, facility maintenance, and competition entry fees [ 32 ].
Finally, while focus group discussions indicate coaches aim to improve their athletes' ability to execute their sport in a safe environment, a limitation of this research exists in the social dynamics associated with focus group participation. Coaches often described asthma management or health-promoting behaviours when discussing the scenarios presented; however research participants tend to provide socially desirable responses, especially when the scope of the work involves a sensitive topic [ 42 ].
While the scenario-based focus groups are a good indicator of coach attitudes and behaviours, participant intentions may not dictate exactly how they would behave in practice or with different contextual factors. In competitive environments where winning is heavily emphasized and valued, some coaches may still not manage asthma according to Air Aware guidelines, potentially increasing athlete vulnerability.